Your Questions About Successful Trading Companies

Nancy asks…

social studies??? help please?

if you know ANY of the answers cana you please please please help me out? i did the rest of my questions but these ones are not in my book

1. think about why the hudson’s bay company and the northwest company hired people to explore west to the Pacific Coast. Who were some of these people?

2. How did women help to make the operation of the fur trade successful?

3. What countries competed for the west coast of North america?

4. What were some of the results of the fur trade? think positive and negative.

5. what was the pemmican war?

John answers:

1. As fur pelts became exhausted in the Great Lakes region and the Mississippi watershed, the great drainages on both sides of the Rocky Mountains became the next trapping grounds. Whichever company explored first and established relationships with the native peoples would have a leg up on the other.

2. Native women were instrumental in providing entree for trappers with the many tribes encountered as the fur trade pushed further westward. Many of the trappers took native women as wives.

3. Spain (pushing northward from Mexico). Russia (pushing southward from Alaska). Britain and the United States (pushing westward across the Rockies).

4. Depletion of beaver, otter, and other fur-bearing creatures. Exploration of the West. Competition for Washington/British Columbia nearly leading to war (54 40′ or Fight!).

5. “competition
between the rival fur companies became so bitter that, in 1814, it
flamed into the bloody Pemmican War. In 1821 the two merged and the
new Hudson’s Bay Company based its remarkable transportation
system, covering all of Canada and what is now the northwestern part of
the United States, upon the use of canoes and pemmican.”
Pemmican was dried meat pounded and mixed with suet.

Daniel asks…

If Sir Richard Branson could run America…would you let him?

Sir Richard Charles Nicholas Branson (born 18 July 1950) is an English industrialist, best known for his Virgin brand of over 360 companies. Branson’s first successful business venture was at age 16, when he published a magazine called Student. He then set up an audio record mail-order business in 1970. In 1972, he opened a chain of record stores, Virgin Records, later known as Virgin Megastores.

In the late 1990s, Branson and musician Peter Gabriel discussed with Nelson Mandela their idea of a small, dedicated group of leaders, working objectively and without any vested personal interest to solve difficult global conflicts.

n June 2006, a tip-off from Virgin Atlantic led US and UK competition authorities to investigate price-fixing attempts between Virgin Atlantic and British Airways. In August 2007, British Airways was fined £271 million over the allegations. Virgin Atlantic was given immunity for tipping off the authorities and received no fine – a controversial decision the Office of Fair Trading defended as being in the public interest.

Branson had poor academic records which contrasted with excellent performance in sports, especially swimming.

Sir Richard also wanted to run the National Lottery at no cost to benefit the people but was rejected, would you like this man to run your country if he was American?

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/politics/1078341.stm

John answers:

To those who have never heard of Richard Branson – do try to keep up.

To the question – he would probably be one of the best Presidents this country has ever had. Honest, innovative, great businessman, humanitarian, intelligent, compassionate.

Maria asks…

please help me with socials?

if you know ANY of the answers cana you please please please help me out? i did the rest of my questions but these ones are not in my book

1. think about why the hudson’s bay company and the northwest company hired people to explore west to the Pacific Coast. Who were some of these people?
2. How did women help to make the operation of the fur trade successful?
3. What countries competed for the west coast of North america?
4. What were some of the results of the fur trade? think positive and negative.
5. what was the pemmican war?

these ones are essay questions but if you know anything about them please tell me that
1. compare and contrast the hudson bay company and the north west company. you should discuss the names of the key individuals, places, methods of doing business, and the advantages/disadvantages that each company had.
2. describe the voyages and accomplishments of several european explorers in the pacific northwest.include relevant dates, places, events

John answers:

1.) Canada, Routes of Explorers, 1497 to 1905. The Hudson Bay was named after Henry Hudson, who explored the bay in 1610 on his ship the Discovery. On this fourth voyage he worked his way around the west coast of Greenland and into the bay, mapping much of its eastern coast. The Discovery became trapped in the ice over the winter, and the crew survived onshore at the southern tip of James Bay. When the ice cleared in the spring Hudson wanted to explore the rest of the area, but the crew mutinied on June 22, 1611.

Sixty years later the Nonsuch reached the bay and successfully traded for beaver pelts with the Cree. This led to the creation of the Hudson’s Bay Company, which bears its name to this day. The British crown awarded a trading monopoly on the Hudson Bay watershed, called Rupert’s Land, to the Hudson’s Bay Company. France contested this grant by sending several military expeditions to the region, but abandoned its claim in the Treaty of Utrecht (April, 1713).

During this period, the Hudson’s Bay Company built several forts and trading posts along the coast at the mouth of the major rivers (such as Fort Severn, Ontario, York Factory, Manitoba, and Churchill, Manitoba). The strategic locations allowed inland exploration and more importantly, facilitated trade with the indigenous people, who would bring fur to the posts from where the HBC would transport it directly to Europe (which incidentally is a shorter distance than from Montreal). The HBC continued to use these posts until the beginning of the 20th century.

This land, an area of approximately 3.9 million km², was ceded in 1870 to Canada as part of the Northwest Territories when the trade monopoly was abolished. Starting in 1913, the Bay was extensively charted by the Canadian Government’s CSS Acadia to develop the bay for navigation. This resulted in the establishment of Churchill, Manitoba, as a deep-sea port for wheat exports in 1929 after unsuccessful attempts at Port Nelson.

Due to a change in naming conventions, Hudson’s Bay is now correctly called Hudson Bay. As a result, both the body of water and the company are often misnamed.

2.) Initial European Exploration
Landscape in Oregon Country, by Charles Marion Russell.British Captain and erstwhile privateer Francis Drake sailed off the Oregon coast in 1579. Juan de Fuca, Greek captain in the employ of Spain, might have found the Strait of Juan de Fuca around 1592. The strait was named for him, but whether he discovered it or not has long been questioned. During the early 1740s, Imperial Russia sent the Dane Vitus Bering to the region. By the late 1700’s and into the mid-19th century, Russian settlers had established several posts and communities on northeast Pacific coast, eventually reaching as far south as Fort Ross, California.

In 1774 the viceroy of New Spain sent Juan Pérez in the ship Santiago to the Pacific Northwest. Peréz made landfall on the Queen Charlotte Islands on July 18, 1774. The northernmost latitude he reached was 54° 40′ N. This was followed, in 1775, by another Spanish expedition, under the command of Bruno de Heceta and including Juan Peréz and Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra as officers. On July 14, 1775 they landed on the Olympic Peninsula near the mouth of the Quinault River. Due to an outbreak of scurvy, Heceta returned to Mexico. On August 17, 1775 he sighted the mouth of the Columbia River but could not tell if it was a river or a major strait. His attempt to sail in failed due to overly strong currents. He named it Bahia de la Asúnciõn. While Heceta sailed south, Quadra continued north in the expedition’s second ship, the Sonora. He reached 59° N, before turning back.

In 1776 English mariner Captain James Cook visited Nootka Sound on Vancouver Island and also voyaged as far as Prince William Sound. In 1779 a third Spanish expedition, under the command of Ignacio de Artega in the ship Princesa, and with Quadra as captain of the ship Favorite, sailed from Mexico to the coast of Alaska, reaching 61° N. Two further Spanish expeditions, in 1788 and 1789, both under Esteban Jose Martínez and Gonzalo López de Haro, sailed to the Pacific Northwest. During the second expedition they met the American captain Robert Gray near Nootka Sound. Upon entering Nootka Sound, they found William Douglas and his ship the Iphigenia. There followed the so-called Nootka Incident, which was resolved by agreements known as the Nootka Convention. In 1790 the Spanish sent three ships to Nootka Sound, under the command of Francisco de Eliza. After establishing a base at Nootka, Eliza sent out several exploration parties. Salvador Fidalgo was sent north to the Alaska coast. Manuel Quimper, with Gonzalo López de Haro as pilot, explored the Strait of Juan de Fuca, discovering the San Juan Islands and Admiralty Inlet in the process. Francisco de Eliza himself took the ship San Carlos into the Strait of Juan de Fuca. From a base at Port Discovery, he explores the San Juan Islands, Haro Strait, Rosario Strait, and Bellingham Bay. In the process he discovered the Strait of Georgia, exploring it as far north as Texada Island. He returned to Nootka Sound by August of 1791. Another Spanish explorer, Jacinto Caamaño, sailed the ship Aranzazu to Nootka Sound in May of 1792. There he met Quadra, who was in command of the Spanish settlement. Quadra sent Caamaño north, where he explored the region of today’s Alaska panhandle. Various Spanish maps, including Caamaño’s, were given to George Vancouver in 1792, as the Spanish and British worked together to chart the complex coastline.

George Vancouver charted the Pacific Northwest on behalf of Great Britain, including the bays and inlets of Puget Sound, the Strait of Georgia and the Johnstone Strait-Queen Charlotte Strait and the much of the rest of the British Columbia Coast and Alaska Panhandle shorelines. The last Spanish exploration expedition in the Pacific Northwest, under Dionisio Alcalá Galiano and Cayentano Valdes met Vancouver in the Strait of Georgia on June 21, 1792. Vancouver had explored Puget Sound just previously. The Spanish explorers knew of Admiralty Inlet and the unexplored region to the south, but decided to sail north. They discovered and entered the Fraser River shortly before meeting Vancouver. After sharing maps and agreeing to cooperate, Galiano, Valdes, and Vancouver sailed north, charting the coastline together. They passed through Johnstone Strait and returned to Nootka Sound. As a result, the Spanish explorers, who had set out from Nootka, became the first Europeans to circumnavigate Vancouver Island. Vancouver himself had entered the Strait of Juan de Fuca directly without going to Nootka first, so had not sailed completedly around the island.
In 1786 Jean François La Pérouse, representing France, sailed to the Queen Charlotte Islands after visiting Nootka Sound but any possible French claim to this region were lost when La Pérouse and his men and journals were lost in a shipwreck near Australia. Captain James Barclay (also spelled Barkley) also visited the area flying the flag of the Austrian Empire. American merchant sea-captain Robert Gray traded along the coast and discovered the mouth of the Columbia River.

3.)Territorial disputes
US Navy Admiral Charles Wilkes’ 1841 Map of the Oregon Territory from “Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition.” Philadelphia: 1845Initial formal claims to the region were asserted by Spain, based on the Treaty of Tordesillas which, in the Spanish Empire’s interpretation, endowed that empire with the Pacific Ocean as a “Spanish lake”. Russian maritime fur trade activity extending from the farther side of the Pacific prompted Spain to send expeditions north to assert Spanish ownership, while at the same time British claims were made and advanced by Captain James Cook and subsequent expeditions by George Vancouver. Potential French, Austrian and Portuguese claims were never advanced. As of the Nootka Conventions, the last in 1794, Spain gave up its exclusive a priori claims and agreed to share the region with the other Powers, giving up its garrison at Nootka Sound in the process.

The United States later established a claim following the exploration of the region by the Lewis and Clark Expedition, partly through the negotiation of former Spanish claims north of the Oregon-California boundary. From the 1810s until the 1840s, modern-day Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and western Montana, along with most of British Columbia, were part of what Americans called the Oregon Country and the British called the Columbia District. This region was jointly claimed by the United States and Great Britain after the Treaty of 1818, which established a condominium of interests in the region in lieu of a settlement. In 1840 American Charles Wilkes explored in the area. John McLoughlin, Chief Factor of the Hudson’s Bay Company, headquartered at Fort Vancouver, was the de facto local political authority for most of this time.

This arrangement ended as U.S. Settlement grew and President James K. Polk was elected on a platform of calling for annexation of the entire Oregon Country and of Texas. After his election, supporters coined the famous slogan “Fifty-four Forty or Fight”, referring to 54 degrees latitude, 40 minutes north – the northward limit of the region. After a war scare with the United Kingdom, the Oregon boundary dispute was settled in the 1846 Oregon Treaty, partitioning the region along the 49th parallel and resolving most but not all of the border disputes (see Pig War).

The mainland territory north of the 49th Parallel remained unincorporated until 1858, when a mass influx of Americans and others during the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush forced the hand of Colony of Vancouver Island’s Governor James Douglas, who declared the mainland a Crown Colony, although official ratification of his unilateral action was several months in coming. The two colonies were amalgamated in 1866 to cut costs, and joined the Dominion of Canada in 1871. The U.S. Portion became the Oregon Territory in 1848; it was later subdivided into territories that were eventually admitted as states, the first of these being Oregon itself in 1859. See Washington Territory.

American expansionist pressure on British Columbia persisted after the colony became a province of Canada, even though Americans living in the province did not harbor annexationist inclinations. The Fenian Brotherhood openly organized and drilled in Washington, particularly in the 1870s and the 1880s, though no cross-border attacks were experienced. During the Alaska Boundary Dispute, U.S. President Teddy Roosevelt threatened to invade and annex British Columbia if Britain would not yield on the question of the Yukon ports. In more recent times, during the so-called “Salmon War” of the 1990s, Washington Senator Slade Gorton called for the U.S. Navy to “force” the Inside Passage, even though it is not an official international waterway.
4.)
Forced merger
By 1810 another crisis hit the fur industry, brought on by the over-harvesting of animals, the beaver in particular. The destruction of the North West Company post at Sault Sainte Marie by the Americans during the War of 1812 was a serious blow during an already difficult time. All these events only intensified competition, and when Thomas Douglas convinced his fellow shareholders in the Hudson’s Bay Company to grant him the Selkirk Concession it marked another in a series of events that would lead to the demise of the North West Company. The Pemmican Proclamation, the ensuing Battle of Seven Oaks in 1816, and its violence, resulted in Lord Selkirk arresting William McGillivray and several North West Company proprietors, seizing their outpost property in Fort William and charging them with responsibility for the deaths of twenty-one people at Seven Oaks. Although this matter was resolved by the authorities in Montreal, over the next few years some of the wealthiest and most capable partners began to leave the company, fearful of its future viability. The form of nepotism within the company too had changed, from the strict values of Simon McTavish to something that now was harming the business in both its costs and morale of others.

By 1820, the company was issuing coinage, each coin representing the value of one beaver pelt. However, the continued existence of the North West Company was in great doubt, and shareholders had no choice but to agree to a merger with their hated rival after Henry Bathurst, the Secretary of State for War and the Colonies, ordered the companies to cease hostilities. In July of 1821, under more pressure from the British government, which passed new regulations governing the fur trade in British North America, a merger agreement was signed with the Hudson’s Bay Company, whereby the North West Company name disappeared after more than forty years in existence. At the time of the merger, the amalgamated company consisted of 97 trading posts that had belonged to the North West Company and 76 that belonged to the Hudson’s Bay Company. George Simpson (1787-1860), the Hudson’s Bay Company Governor-in-Chief of Rupert’s Land who became the Canadian head of the northern division of the greatly enlarged business, made his headquarters in the Montreal suburb of Lachine.

5.) Traditionally pemmican was prepared from the lean meat of large game animals such as buffalo, elk or deer. The meat was cut in thin slices and dried over a slow fire, or in the hot sun until it was hard and brittle. Then it was pounded into very small pieces, almost powder-like in consistency, using stones. The pounded meat was mixed with melted fat with a ratio of approximately 50% pounded meat and 50% melted fat. In some cases, dried fruits such as saskatoon berries, cranberries, blueberries, or choke cherries were pounded into powder and then added to the meat/fat mixture. The resulting mixture was then packed into “green” rawhide pouches for storage
The Pemmican Proclamation
To conserve scarce food, in 1814 Governor Miles Macdonell of Assiniboia (or Red River Colony) forbade, in the Pemmican Proclamation, the export of pemmican from his jurisdiction. Pemmican was exported by the Métis not only to the Hudson’s Bay Company, but also to the North West Company, the HBC’s chief competitor that happened to be enjoying better success in the fur trade at the time. The proclamation led to the destruction, twice, of the chief Red River settlement of Fort Douglas by the North West Company, the destruction of the North West Company Fort Gibraltar by the HBC, and to the Battle of Seven Oaks, all in 1816.

Boer War
In Africa, biltong was commonly used in all of its forms, but during the Second Boer War (1899-1902), British troops were given an iron ration made of four ounces of pemmican and four ounces of chocolate and sugar. The pemmican would keep in perfect condition for decades, even in sacks worn smooth by transportation, and thus it was considered much superior to biltong. This iron ration was prepared in two small tins (soldered together) which were fastened inside the soldiers’ belts. It was the last ration pulled and it was pulled only when ordered by the commanding officer. On this a man could march thirty-six hours before he began to drop from hunger. The British Army Chief of Scouts, the American Frederick Russell Burnham, made pemmican a mandatory item carried by every scout

Charles asks…

Northwest passage navigable before 1950 – what does this tell us about changes in Arctic ice cover?

You may not know about this, but in the 1930’s and 40’s the Northwest passage above Canada was successfully navigated a number of times by ships.

As Mark Dickerson of the University of Calgary notes, In 1937 E. J. Gall made the transit in a small (60 foot long) wooden ship. You can see photos of it, and read about the voyage here: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:AMjDqqeTd20J:pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic41-2-156.pdf+%22presented+to+e.+j.+gall+by+the+fur+trade+commissioner%22&hl=en&gl=uk&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESgJnDc9nMrHqmlOxXVMOC_Zy0PNRMSTDrnX0RiCjQgERw8SWYjbDv3sM_QbqFnoatzj0uB4mBT51Kr_Tt667F-aw-202EWtiAWnHwiYV7BhfOwCIdQBMJ6DpSGi16I5xkwfRFLX&sig=AHIEtbQO5lydRcIIQONpVO-T7QKKg_lGqQ

That same year, the same vessel met the SS Nascopie of the Hudson Bay Company at the furthest north outpost of Prince Regent Inlet, such was the low extent of ice at the time: http://www.hbc.com/hbcheritage/history/transportation/nascopie/ The SS Nascopie even took tourists on board for voyages around the Northwest in the 1930’s!

Again, the University of Calgary records how in 1942, and again in 1944, the [quote] “frail and underpowered little ship” the St Roch, a wooden RCMP ship successfully navigated the passage – in 1944 it made the journey with little trouble in only 86 days! http://www.ucalgary.ca/arcticexpedition/larsenexpeditions

Since then many ships have made the journey.

1969: SS Manhattan collected oil from Prudhoe Bay as part of Northwest passage.
(See: Bern Keating, Tomas Sennett, Through the Northwest Passage for Oil, National Geographic Magazine, Vol 137, no 3, March 1970)

In 1977 Willy de Roos sailed through it in his yacht
(see http://www.amazon.co.uk/North-West-Passage-Willy-Roos/dp/037030263X/ref=sr_1_3?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1272271608&sr=8-3 )

And in 1984 the cruise ship the MS Explorer made the journey as well.

What do you think these successful transits of the Northwest passage tell us about the variability of the Arctic ice before satellite measurements began?
.
.
EDIT @ Antarctic –

As we’ve come to expect, you just will not admit that the facts. The St Roch made the journey in 1944 in just 86 days!

The 1937 journey was made by a tiny wooden ship – of course he took supplies. What the hell do you think he would do?

You just can’t accept the truth, can you?
.
Trevor –

It certainly speaks volumes about you, that’s for sure. You made a bald statement that the Northwest passage was now navigable for the first time. I disproved it, politely, and with references.

You then claimed that the ships previously had to be dragged over the ice to make the transit. I showed otherwise.

You made a statement, it was wrong. Get over it. I have quickly and cheerfully admitted to mistakes when someone has been able to point them out to me without cavilling after the fact.

John answers:

Your very first link is of the standard I’ve come to expect E. J. Gall talks of going with men prepared to ‘winter over’ he also talks of piled up ice, luck and ‘going for it’ and you interpret this as sailing straight through, as has been done recently, by ordinary ships.

Then there’s the St Roch you seem to ignore the first voyage, for obvious reasons it took over a year and they were frozen in over winter, you talk up the 2nd voyage at just 86 days, in an open NWP it would take about 10 days or less.

And best of all the SS Manhattan, you provide no link at all again for pretty obvious reasons because any link would have detail about the SS Manhattan which was refitted as an icebreaker
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SS_Manhattan_(1962)

Unfortunately Willy de Roos didn’t think this was an easy trip in his specially strengthened yacht
http://archives.cbc.ca/sports/exploits/clips/13665/

“the cruise ship the MS Explorer made the journey as well.”
You mean the IC Class ice strengthened cruise ship built specially for traveling in the Arctic and Antarctic waters.
Http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MS_Explorer#cite_note-Aamulehti-11

Lets see if you can actually address the points raised instead of just throwing the usual insults.

Beinghere: As you can see from his reply to me, he has little interest in facts and answers valid points by just repeating himself or with hostility.
Straight technical points like what type of ships the SS Manhattan & MS Explorer he ignores.

Meadow : “You just can’t accept the truth, can you?”
If you ever post ‘some truth’ I will happily accept it! I’m not so good at accepting B/S and it seems I’m not alone.

Interesting had 2 thumbs up about 5 mins ago just after adding the last paragraph, had another window open looking at another question and suddenly in just a few minutes had 4 thumbs down don’t you think that’s just a little obvious meadow. Especially as after 4 hours no other denier is even willing to buy into this nonsense.

How long before All Black shows I wonder!

All Black(meadow) as it is now becoming pretty clear you are the same person, yes an open NWP would be quicker I thought I made that pretty clear, there was no “wihout meaning to” about it. But as I stated several times and you seem incapable of grasping 86 days is not open it is picking through very slowly to be an open commercial shipping lane you have to be able to sail straight through, and you can twist and squirm all you want, you can’t answer that, as Meadow or as All black, can you !

Steven asks…

WW l…..Multiple Choice!!!?

1 – Early in WWl, US public opinion against Germany:
a – was increased by successful publicity by the British.
b – was already almost universal in the US.
c – made it almost impossible for any US company to risk trading with Germany.
d – was so irrelevant that the British ignored American Public opinion on Germany.

2 – One of the ways that Wilson justified US entery into WW l was:
a – to protect US commercial interests.
b – to bring an end to separate European nations-creating a ” United States of Europe.”
c – to end the threat of war and bring ” peace in our time.”
d – to bring democracy and openness to the world.

Thank you so MUCH!!!

John answers:

1.a
2.d

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